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Electronic Measurements

Measurement Theory, Circuits and Sensors

Language:  English
Measuring is a scientific skill and is important in monitoring, design and validation processes. This book describes electronic sensor systems to convert a physical quantity into numeric values.
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In our information age, the probing of data is the elementary source for understanding the world around us. In most technical systems, these measurements are done by electronic systems. This book teaches the fundamentals of measurements, the technology of sensors, and the fundamentals of electronic circuits. The measurement system is approached as a chain to convert a physical quantity via an electronic sensor setup into a digital bus signal. Extra focus is on the management of measurement errors, circuit theory and the sensor as an electronic transducer.

About the author

Geert Langereis is an experienced researcher and research initiator in the field of sensor technology, smart-algorithms and biomedical measurement application development. He studied Electrical Engineering at the University of Twente (1994) and obtained a PhD on sensor systems for monitoring washing processes from the same university (1999). After that, he worked for ten years in the industrial research laboratories of Philips and NXP. In 2009 he went back to academic research and education at the University of Eindhoven (2009-2013) and the Fontys University of Applied Sciences in Eindhoven (2014 until now).

  1. Measurement Theory
    1. Why do we measure?
    2. Terminology in experimental research methods
    3. Quantities and units
    4. Measurement scales
    5. The measurement chain
    6. Measurement device terminology
    7. Summary, and what is next?
  2. Measurement Errors
    1. Types of errors
    2. Accuracy and precision
    3. Example
    4. Tolerance
    5. The effect of taking more measurements
    6. Significant digits
    7. Error propagation
    8. Summary
  3. Electric Currents and Potentials
    1. Electric currents and potentials
    2. AC and DC signals
    3. Voltage meters and current meters
    4. Resistance
    5. Summary
  4. Network theory
    1. Kirchhoff’s laws
    2. Superposition
    3. Norton and Thévenin source transformations
    4. The Wheatstone bridge
    5. Dimensioning a volt meter and current meter
    6. Time dependent circuits
    7. Summary
  5. Basic Sensor Theory
    1. Background literature
    2. A sensor in the measurement chain
    3. Selector part and transducing part
    4. Quantities
    5. Self-generating vs. modulating sensors
    6. Sensitivity, offset and calibration
    7. Reference
    8. Drift and cross-sensitivity
    9. Transfer curve and non-linearity
    10. Motion artefacts
    11. Types of sensors
    12. The smart sensor
    13. Summary
  6. Sensor-Actuator Systems
    1. From measured quantities to knowledge
    2. How data flows
    3. Sensor/actuator network concepts
    4. Multivariate analysis
    5. Network topologies
    6. Trends
    7. Trends on material and device level
    8. Trends at system topology level
    9. Summary
  7. Signal Conditioning and Sensor Read-out
    1. Sensor Interfaces
    2. The push button
    3. Resistive sensors
    4. Capacitive sensors
    5. Photo diode
    6. Signal conversion
    7. Bandwidth
    8. Long wires
    9. Summary
  8. ADC and DAC
    1. From analog to digital and back
    2. Analog to digital conversion
    3. Digital to analog conversion
    4. Summary
  9. Bus Interfaces
    1. The advantages of bus interfaces and networks
    2. Buses optimized for sensor networks
    3. Industrial buses
    4. Summary
  10. References
  • Appendix A Circuits, Graphs, Tables, Pictures and Code
  • Appendix B: Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR)
  • Appendix C: A Schmitt Trigger for sensor level detection
  • Index
About the Author

Geert Langereis