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Sanitation & Water Supply in Low-income Countries

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Language:  English
Water supply and sanitation are amongst the most basic requirements of life.
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Water supply and sanitation are amongst the most basic requirements of life. For the past 50 to 150 years people living in Europe, America and a few capital cities elsewhere around the globe have come to take for granted the provision of a virtually limitless supply of clean, safe water and the seemingly effortless removal of all human wastes ‘out of sight and out of mind’. That this miracle of collective political will, urban planning and engineering bravura is so much taken for granted is credit to the public health engineers, planners, civic administrators and politicians who made it possible. That we should take it for granted is wholly unacceptable.

  1. Introduction to the Global Sanitation and Water-Supply Crisis
    1. The Magnitude of the Crisis
    2. Disease, Stunting and Cognitive Impairment
    3. Personal Safety and Dignity
    4. Solutions to the Crisis
    5. References
    6. Chapter 1: Key Messages
  2. Water- and Excreta-related Diseases
    1. Introduction
    2. The Global Health Impact of Water and excreta related diseases
    3. Environmental Classification of Water and excreta related diseases
    4. References
    5. Chapter 2: Key Messages
  3. Sanitation Systems
    1. Rural Areas
    2. Small towns and large villages
    3. High-density urban areas
    4. Sociocultural factors
    5. School sanitation
    6. Ecological sanitation
    7. References
    8. Chapter 3: Key Messages
  4. Water Supply Systems
    1. Rural Areas
    2. Urban areas
    3. References
    4. Chapter 4: Key Messages
  5. Programming and Planning
    1. Getting Started - Understanding where the constraints lie
    2. Participatory Planning Tools
    3. Inducing Behaviour Change and Promoting Hygiene
    4. Creating Sanitation Markets
    5. Management options for rural water supplies
    6. Urban Water and Sanitation Planning
    7. References
    8. Further Reading
    9. Chapter 5: Key Messages
  6. Economics and Financing
    1. What does it cost?
    2. The Economics of Sanitation and Water Supply
    3. Financial Assessments
    4. Subsidies
    5. References
    6. Further Reading
    7. Chapter 6: Key Messages
  7. Annex A
    1. Design of On-Site Sanitation Systems
    2. Single-pit VIP latrines
    3. eThekwini latrines
    4. Single-pit pour-flush latrines
    5. Alternating twin-pit pour-flush latrines
  8. Annex B
    1. Hydraulic Design of Simplified Sewers
    2. Notation
    3. Properties of a circular section
    4. Design procedure
    5. References
  9. Annex C
    1. Hydraulic Design of Low-Cost Combined Sewers
    2. Basis of Hydraulic Design
    3. Stormwater Flows
    4. References
    5. Further reading
  10. Annex D
    1. Useful Websites
  11. Abbreviations and acronyms
I recommend this book to those who want to avoid illnesses that can be gotten from the environment. This material can also help health agencies strengthen their advocacy in achieving wellness.
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About the Authors

Barbara Evans

Duncan Mara