Sub-bituminous Coals: An Overview

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91 pages
Sub-bituminous coals are covered in this book, with some emphasis on power generation. Technologies such as carbonisation are discussed as if liquefaction to make vehicular fuels.
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About the author

Clifford Jones has spent a working lifetime in teaching, research and writing on fuels and combustion. He has held academic posts in the UK and Australia and has held visiting posts in a number of countries including Kazakhstan. He has written over 20 books and numerous papers and articles. He has maj...


The book is focused entirely on coals which are sub-bituminous in rank. In the coalification sequence these fall between lignite and bituminous. The book gives details of properties of such coals including calorific values and Hardgrove indices and then gives examples of their use in power generation. Powder River Coals have a chapter to themselves. There is a discussion of carbon sequestration at a plant raising electricity with sub-bituminous coals, also accounts of their carbonisation and gasification. There is consideration of conversion to liquid fuels, and of hazards including spontaneous heating and dust explosions. There is also a detailed section on pricing.

  1. Background on the nature of sub-bituminous coals
    1. Introduction
    2. Geological age
    3. Petrographic composition
    4. Moisture content
    5. Calorific values
    6. Other properties
    7. Sapropelic coals equivalent to sub-bituminous in rank
    8. Application of Hilt’s Law
    9. Minerals and inorganics
    10. Concluding remarks
    11. References
  2. Utilisation in power generation
    1. Introduction
    2. Australia
    3. Alberta
    4. Indonesia
    5. New Zealand
    6. Spain
    7. South west USA
    8. Other regions using sub-bituminous coals in power plants
    9. Flyash (a.k.a. Pulverised fuel ash)
    10. Further comments
    11. References
    12. Appendix to Chapter 2: Phase diagram for carbon dioxide, showing the supercritical region
  3. Powder River Basin coals
    1. Introduction
    2. Characteristics of PRB coal
    3. Mines at PRB
    4. Power plants using PRB coal
    5. Exports
    6. Pricing
    7. The Powder River Basin Coal Users’ Group
    8. Calculated estimates of amounts
    9. Ash fusion temperatures
    10. Conversion to liquid fuels17
    11. Further remarks
    12. Possible carbon sequestration at PRB
    13. Chemical and petrographic features of selected PRB coals
    14. Minor inorganic constituents
    15. References
    16. Possible carbon sequestration at Wyodak
  4. Briquettes
    1. Introduction
    2. Examples
    3. Further remarks
    4. References
  5. Carbonisation and gasification
    1. Examples of carbonisation
    2. Introduction to gasification
    3. Example: Collie, Western Australia
    4. Powder River
    5. India, Bangladesh and Pakistan
    6. Hydrogasification
    7. Co-gasification with biomass
    8. Coalbed methane (CBM)
    9. Concluding remarks
    10. References
  6. Sub-bituminous coal in isolated settings and in unworked deposits
    1. Introduction
    2. Examples
    3. References
  7. Conversion to liquid fuels
    1. Introduction
    2. Exploratory work on liquefaction of sub-bituminous coals
    3. Further remarks
    4. References
  8. Safety issues with sub-bituminous coals
    1. Case studies
    2. Safety at PRB
    3. Spontaneous heating
    4. References
  9. Pricing of sub-bituminous coals
    1. Examples of current or recent prices
    2. Further remarks
    3. References