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Applied Statistics

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Language:  English
This book is intended to introduce the concepts, definitions, and terminology of the subject in an elementary presentation with minimum mathematical background which does not surpass college algebra.
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Applied Statistics has come into existence as an outcome of an experiment and wide experience of more than 40 years. Applied Statistics is intended to introduce the concepts, definitions, and terminology of the subject in an elementary presentation with minimum mathematical background which does not surpass college algebra. Applied Statistics should prepare the reader to make a good decision based on data. The material, contained in Applied Statistics, can be covered in a 15-week, 3-hours-per-week semester, with little adjustment as time allows.

It is already encrypted on the American currency “IN GOD WE TRUST”. This was the first part of a statement that I heard from the Quality Manager at the Lubbock, TX, site of Texas Instrument while I was there (1992–1998) as a quality engineer and Statistical Process Control Trainer. The second part says “EVERYTHING ELSE NEEDS DATA”. It is the 21st century and the technology age, and data is abandunt in every way and field. Statistics is not an exception since it deals with data all, the time. How to make sense of that information was the motive behind writing this treatise on Applied Statistics.

Applied Statistics is a compendium, an elementary introduction to the growing field of statistics. In this consize volume we emphasize on the concepts, definitions and terminology. With no doubt in mind, linking the three building blocks, mentioned above, will provide any person with a strong hold on the subject of statistics.

The material had been presented in such a way that only College Algebra can be a prerequisite for the course that covers the whole text in one semester. The material is presented in 6 chapters.

Chapter 1 is about collecting, and organizing qualitative and quantitative data, as well as summarizing the data graphically or numericall regardless if the data were discrete or continuous.

Chapter 2 introduces the notion of probability, its axioms, its rules, and applications. In addition to that, Chapter 2 contains material on probability distributions and their characteristics for discrete and continuous cases.

Chapter 3 covers the first main part of inferential statistics; namely estimation in its two branches: point and interval estimation by introducing the sample statistics as estimators for the population parameters.

Chapter 4 is concerned about the second part of inferential statistics, namely hypothesis testing about one parameter of a population, or two parameters of two populations. In this chapter there is an outline, and procedure on how to implement the steps in hypothsis testing when using the two methods; the classical or the traditional method and the p-value method. The detailed exposure of the two methods will enable the reader, and the student to reach a comprehensive and sound conclusion by using information found in data.

  1. Descriptive Statistics
    1. Introduction
    2. Descriptive Statistics
    3. Frequency Distributions
    4. Graphical Presentation
    5. Summation Notation
    6. Numerical Methods for Summarizing Quantitative Data
    7. Some Properties of the Numerical Measures of Quantitative Data
    8. Other Measures for Quantitative Data
    9. Methods of Counting
    10. Description of Grouped Data
  2. Random Variables and Probability Distributions
    1. Introduction
    2. Probability
    3. Operations and Probability calculation on Events
    4. Random Variables
    5. Expected Value and Variance of a Random Variable
    6. Some Discrete Probability Distributions
    7. Normal Distribution
  3. Estimation
    1. Sampling
    2. Point Estimation
    3. Interval Estimation
    4. Confidence Interval about One Parameter
    5. Sample Size Determination
    6. Confidence Interval about two Parameters
  4. Testing of Statistical Hypotheses
    1. Introduction
    2. Fundamental Concepts
    3. Methods in Testing a Statistical Hypothesis
    4. Hypothesis Testing About One Parameter
    5. Hypothesis Testing Concerning Two Parameters
  5. Simple Linear Regression and Correlation
    1. Introduction
    2. Regression Models
    3. Fitting a straight line (First order Model)
    4. Correlation
    5. Hypothesis Testing in Regression Analysis
    6. Confidence Interval on β0 and β1
  6. Other Tests and Analysis Of Variance
    1. Introduction
    2. Goodness-of-Fit Tests
    3. Contingency Tables
    4. The one-Way Analysis of Variance
  7. Appendix A Tables
  8. Appendix B Hints and Answers to Exercises
  9. Appendix C Understanding The Concepts
  10. References
Es muy didáctico. Es un buen libro de introducción
About the Author

Mohammed A. Shayib

After I graduated from The Evangelical National Institute, High School, Sidon, Lebanon, June 1963, I was awarded a scholarship by UNRWA to continue my college degree. This scholarship was based on my academic record that was kept by the office of UNRWA, Beirut, Lebanon, since I was a Palestinian refugee living in Lebanon after the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. I had my grade education at the UNRWA schools in the Palestinian camps in south Lebanon, which was partially supported by UNRWA.

My scholarship was transferred to Egypt, and I enrolled in the College of Sciences, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. I had my four years of college, and I chose Mathematics as my major. Despite the war in June 1967, during the final exams of my senior year, I graduated with Distinction, First Class honor, and got my B. Sc. Degree. While in Egypt, I was encouraged to pursue a higher degree. I kept that in mind when I was working as a fulltime teaching assistant in the Department of Mathematics, University of Riyadh, (now, King Saud University), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. After 3 years, I got enough funds to support myself to go to Liverpool University, UK, for my Doctorate degree. On my way to make reservations, I was diverted by one of my friends to check with the Office of AFME, (American Friends of the Middle East, an agency sponsored by the State Department of USA), Beirut, and then go to USA on a scholarship. I did, but it was not immediate. I spent two years at AUB, Beirut, Lebanon. After those two years I got my MS degree.

On August 18, 1972 I left Beirut, Lebanon, to USA, via Cairo airport. I attended New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, USA, for two years before I changed my major of study and went to Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX. I got another MS degree before I left NMSU.

On August 25, 1979, I was awarded my Ph D in Mathematics, with concentration in Statistics. One week later I was hired by Cottey College, Nevada, Missouri, USA, for one year before I was recruited by Kuwait University, Kuwait. While studying at TTU, I got married on Aug 18, 1974, and had a son, after 4 years.

I worked for 10 years in the departments of Mathematics, and Statistics and Operations Research, Kuwait University, and had three more children, two girls and one boy. I attained the rank of an Associate Professor, and acted as an Associate Chairman before we had to leave due to the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait, Aug. 2, 1990. We left Kuwait on Sept. 14, 1990 to USA, based on my older son being American by birth. We settled in Lubbock, TX. I worked for TTU part-time for two years before I got a job at Texas Instruments, Inc., Lubbock site, as a statistician and Statistical Process Control Trainer, during which I got certified by ASQ as a CQE. I kept that job for 6 years (1992 – 1998). Economy got bad and I was laid off, and back to TTU as a Systems Analyst for another 6 years. I did not see any prospect for promotion in that job, so I went back to teaching.

I joined Prairie View A&M University, Department of Mathematics, Sept. 1, 2004, where I am now a tenured Associate Professor.