Fundamentals of Chemistry

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133 pages
This book is about fundamental concepts that any chemistry student should not only be aware of but proficient at.
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Doctor Romain R. El Sair BSc, MSc, MPhil, PhD, AMRSC

Dr. Romain El Sair studied at the Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Italy (BSc), at the Université des Sciences et Techniques in Nantes, France (MSc) and Brighton, UK where he gained a Doctorate Degree in Organic Chemistry in the year 20...


This book is about fundamental concepts that any chemistry student should not only be aware of but proficient at. This book deals with the states of matter, the mole, the shapes of molecules, the elements and their properties in the periodic table, the electronic structure of the elements and includes many numerical examples to apply the newly-learned concepts. Solutions to the exercises will be provided in the second volume of “Fundamental of Chemistry”.

  1. Fundamentals of Chemistry
    1. Aim of this Book
    2. Scope of this Book
  2. Substances and Reactions
    1. Classifying Substances
    2. Solids, Liquids and Gases
    3. Changing state
    4. Element
    5. Metals & Non-metals
    6. Chemical symbols
    7. Compound
    8. Mixture
    9. Physical separation
    10. Physical and chemical change
    11. Elements, mixtures or compounds?
    12. Atomic theory
    13. Chemical formulae
    14. Ion
    15. Naming Compounds
  3. Chemical Equations Subatomic Structure Relative Atomic Mass
    1. Chemical equations
    2. Atomic Structure
    3. Fundamental subatomic particles
    4. Chemical Masses
    5. Mass spectrometer
  4. Th e Mole
    1. Introduction
    2. Why is the mole useful?
    3. Molecules
    4. Ionic compounds
    5. Useful relationships involving the mole
    6. Mass Percentage composition of elements in compounds
    7. Empirical formulae of compounds
    8. Th eoretical yield
    9. Percentage yield
    10. Limiting reagent
  5. Solutions and Concentrations
    1. Introduction
    2. Dissolving
    3. Concentration
    4. Changing volume
    5. Most useful unit of concentration - Molarity
    6. Equation to learn
    7. Ionic Solutions
    8. Diluting Solutions
    9. Th e pH scale
    10. Other units for concentration
  6. Electromagnetic Radiation and Spectroscopy
    1. Electromagnetic Spectrum
    2. Definition of Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR)
    3. Energy of Light
    4. Emission Spectra
    5. Absorption Spectra
    6. Uses of spectroscopy
    7. Quantum theory
    8. Interpreting electronic spectra
    9. Quantum-Mechanical Model
    10. Sublevels
    11. s orbitals
    12. p orbitals
    13. d orbitals
    14. Quantum Numbers
    15. Th e Pauli Exclusion Principle
    16. Electronic Confi guration
    17. Th e Aufb au Principle
    18. Summary
  7. Electron Confi guration Bonding Redox equations
    1. Valence Electrons and Bonding
    2. Valence electrons
    3. Bonding
    4. Lewis diagrams
    5. Single and multiple covalent bonds
    6. Redox reactions
    7. Summary
  8. Shapes of Molecules
    1. Exceptions to the octet rule
    2. Exceptions to the octet rule
    3. Limitations of Lewis structures
    4. Shapes of covalent molecules
    5. Molecules with lone pairs
    6. Distorted shapes
    7. Exercise - What shape is an ammonia molecule?
    8. Non-equivalent positions
    9. Molecules with lone pairs
    10. Limitations with Lewis structures
    11. Metallic bonding
    12. Ionic and Covalent
    13. Electronegativity
    14. Polar bonds
    15. Intermolecular forces
  9. Chemical Bonding and Solid Structures
    1. Introduction
    2. Giant metallic structures and their properties
    3. Giant Ionic structures and their properties
    4. Molecular structures and their properties
    5. Simple molecular structures and their properties
  10. Trends in the Periodic Table
    1. Historical trends
    2. Mendeleev’s table ()
    3. Modern Periodic Table
    4. Metals / non-metals
    5. Physical Properties
    6. Electronegativity
    7. Trends across a Period
    8. Trends down a Group
  11. Thermochemistry
    1. Introduction
    2. Forms of Energy
    3. Energy and Chemical Reactions
    4. Enthalpy, H
    5. Heat Energy and Chemical Reactions
    6. Enthalpy and Enthalpy Change
    7. Endothermic reactions
    8. Enthalpy and Enthalpy Change
    9. Th ermochemical equations
    10. Standard State Enthalpy Changes
    11. Standard State Enthalpies
    12. Specifi c heat capacity
    13. Standard State Enthalpies
    14. Summary
This book is one of a kind; I am so glad to find out about this website. All the books are informative, interactive and easy to manipulate. Thank you...for making my life and that of many others out there a little easier.
8. august 2015 kl. 00.42
Great book, clear and easy to understand
13. mai 2013 kl. 11.01
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