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Essential Process Control for Chemical Engineers

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Lingua:  English
Almost everything you need to know about control to meet the IChemE’s recommended syllabus for a general career in chemical engineering.
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  1. Introduction 
    1. Why do we need control? 
  2. Instrumentation 
    1. What is an instrument? 
    2. Factors to be considered in selecting an instrument 
    3. Instruments for temperature measurement 
    4. Pressure measurement 
    5. Flow measurement 
    6. Level measurement 
    7. Chemical composition 
  3. Communication signals 
    1. Types of communication signal 
  4. Final control elements 
    1. Control valves 
    2. Control valve sizing 
  5. Diagrams for process control systems 
    1. Process flow diagrams (PFDs) 
    2. Piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs) 
  6. Inputs and outputs in control systems 
    1. Process inputs 
    2. Process outputs 
    3. Processes in control engineering 
    4. An example of variables and processes 
  7. Introduction to feedback control 
    1. Feedback control and block diagrams 
    2. Positive and negative feedback 
    3. Control loop problems 
    4. Direction of control action 
    5. Controller hardware 
  8. Introduction to steady-state and dynamic response 
    1. Steady-state gain 
    2. Dynamic response 
  9. Dynamic modelling 
    1. Laplace transforms 
    2. Derivation of basic transforms 
    3. Solution of differential equations using Laplace transforms 
    4. Transfer functions 
    5. Block Diagrams 
    6. Block diagram algebra 
    7. Solutions of responses for high-order systems 
    8. Forming dynamic models 
  10. Analytical solution of real world models 
    1. Types of non-linearity 
    2. Linearisation of non-linear equations 
    3. Simplifying expressions through deviation variables 
    4. Procedure for simplifying and solving a non-linear model 
    5. Putting it all together – a reactant balance for a CSTR 
  11. PID Controller algorithm 
    1. Really simple feedback controller – on-off 
    2. Proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control 
    3. Proportional only control 
    4. Integral only control 
    5. Derivative action 
    6. Proportional-Intergral (PI) control 
    7. PID control response 
    8. Other forms of PID algorithm 
  12. Control system analysis 
    1. Analysis of a typical feedback control system 
    2. The PID algorithm as a transfer function 
    3. Analysis of proportional control of a first-order process 
    4. Example of a first order process under proportional control 
    5. Example of a second-order process under proportional control 
    6. Analysis of integral control of a first-order process 
  13. Controller tuning 
    1. What needs to be done to tune a PID Controller? 
    2. How do you decide what is a good controller performance? 
    3. Some methods of controller tuning 
    4. Control loop health monitoring 
    5. Control loop diagnostics 
  14. More advanced single-loop control arrangements 
    1. Cascade control 
    2. Selective or autioneering control 
    3. Override control 
    4. Ratio control 
    5. Feedforward control 
  15. Design of control systems 
    1. Control envelope 
    2. Multivariable processes 
    3. How to determine the number of controlled variables 
    4. Plantwide mass balance control 
  16. Control system architecture 
    1. The effect of technology on process plant control rooms 
    2. Human factors in control room displays 
    3. Distributed control systems 
    4. Safety Instrumented Systems 

This book covers almost all of the process control material required to meet the IChemE’s recommended syllabus for a general career in chemical engineering. The first section is on instrumentation, including control valves and plant communications. Several chapters then descibe P&I diagrams, the concept of feedback control and introduce the main types of simple dynamic response that can be seen in chemical plant. The next section of the book is concerned with analysis and covers dynamic modelling, the PID algorithm, control system analysis and controller tuning. The last three chapters look at more advanced single loop control, control system design and control system architecture. The book is based on class notes that have been developed over the past four years and has benefited from lots of useful student feedback.

I found in this book many very nice explanations and contexts useful for each process control engineer. Thank you.
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Dr. Bruce Postlethwaite

Bruce Postlethwaite is a Senior Teaching Fellow in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Strathclyde University in Glasgow. Bruce is a Strathclyde graduate and left with a BSc in Chemical Engineering in 1978. He then spent several years in industry (as a technical support engineer in a fertiliser plant; a research engineer in a nuclear plant and then a control software engineer in the same plant) before returning to Strathclyde as a lecturer in 1986. He’s been there, apart from a short period teaching at UC Berkeley, every since. His main teaching interests are in process control, but he’s also taught classes in process safety, computer programming, biochemical engineering, design and process economics. Bruce has kept contact with industry during his time teaching at Strathclyde and has provided consultancy for a wide range of clients including: BNFL;British Gas; West of Scotland Water, East of Scotland Water, North British Distillery, Brewing Research Intl., Controlled Therapeutics, Rathburn Chemicals, Scottish Water, BP Exploration; Marine Biopolymers, Seaspice and Vascutek.