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Measurements of Body Composition by Bioimpedance

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Language:  English
The measurements of body composition, fat mass, fat-free mass, muscle mass, total body water, extra and intracellular waters are important to evaluate your health.
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The measurements of body composition, fat mass, fat-free mass, muscle mass, total body water, extra and intracellular waters are important to evaluate your health. These measurements can be made with simple devices, called impedance meters which provide the hand-to-foot resistance or the foot-to-foot one. The knowledge of these resistances together with body height, weight and age permit to calculate fat mass (FM), or fat-free-mass (FFM), total body water (TBW), extracellular (ECW) and intracellular water (ICW). The 1st and 2nd chapters present the various types of medical impedance meters used in supine position with four adhesive electrodes on hand and foot and foot-to-foot ones (FFI) used in standing position with electrodes on a body scale. The introduction in 2003 of Japanese and Korean eight electrode impedance meters with four plantar and four hand electrodes permit to measure limb FM and FFM in standing position in a single operation. The 3rd chapter presents the main applications of impedance meters described in the relevant literature, which cover FFM, FM, TBW, ECW and ICW, together with measurements by Dual X-Ray absorptiometry which can be considered as a reference method. The 4th chapter describes methods for increasing the accuracy of FFI by optimizing electrodes design. The discussion in the 5th chapter evaluates the error in FM caused by inaccurate resistance measurements. The 6th chapter concludes that the advantage of FFI over medical devices is that they permit rapid impedance and weight measurements. But their design should facilitate the reproducibility of correct heels position on the scale for better accuracy.

  1. Introduction
    1. Body fluids
    2. Fat mass and fat-free mass
    3. Bioimpedance techniques
  2. Various types of impedance meters
    1. Description of medical impedance meters with adhesive electrodes
    2. Description of four electrodes FFI
    3. Description of eight-electrodes impedance meters
  3. Applications of impedance meters
    1. Medical Impedance Meters
    2. Four electrodes FFI
    3. Eight electrodes impedance meters
    4. FM and FFM measurements in limbs and trunk with eight electrodes FFI
  4. Methods for increasing accuracy of foot-to-foot impedance meters
    1. Impedance meters and podoscope
    2. Protocol, subjects and statistical analysis
    3. Results
  5. Discussion
    1. Effect Of Resistance Errors On FM And FFM Determination
    2. Reproducibility Of Resistance Measurements
    3. Effect of feet position and leg flexion on resistance and reproducibility
    4. Effect of a resistance variation on the determination of body fat measurement
  6. Conclusion
  7. Summary
  8. References

About the Author

Michel Jaffrin

Michel Jaffrin was born in Nice (France) on 11 June 1938. He obtained his Engineering degree from the National School of Aeronautics in Paris in 1960 and a PhD from Brown University (Providence, RI, USA) in February 1964 with a thesis on shock waves in ionosphere, while being a researcher at MIT in Boston. He was a research engineer at ONERA (Office National d’Etudes et Recherches Aérospatiales) and later at Alcatel Lucent. He returned to MIT as associate professor from 1967 to 1973 to work in biofluid mechanics, peristaltic flows, blood rheology, gas flow in lungs. He returned to France in September 1973 to participate in the creation of the University of Technology of Compiegne (UTC). He contributed to the development of Biomedical Engineering (artificial organs, fluid mechanics, membrane processes and teaching). He has also been teaching fluid mechanics at the Polytechnic School (Palaiseau) part-time from 1984 to 1996. He was appointed in 1997 as senior member of Institut Universitaire of France until 2006, and he is now an honorary member.

He is presently emeritus professor at UTC where he continues his research on membrane filtration, artificial organs, measurement of body composition by bioimpedance (fat mass, lean body mass and body water).

He has been President of the French Biomechanics Society from 1995 to 1997 and Governor of European Society of Artificial Organs from 1992 to 2000. In 2002 he received the prize of the Medical Press and the Emile Bucherl Life-time Achievement Award from the European Society of Artificial Organs in 2009.

He has edited 3 books: Cardiovascular and Pulmonary dynamics, vol 71, 470 pp, INSERM 1978; Biological Flow PLENUM Pub Corp 367 pp, 1996; Biomécanique des Fluides et des Tissus, MASSON, 454 pp, 1998 nominated at Roberval Prize. He has published 195 articles in international journals, 25 book chapters and 147 Congress proceeding. He created and organized the Maaf Santé Biomechanics Prize from 1997 to 2006, rewarding young researchers. He has supervised about 40 PhD theses.