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Concise Hydrology

Concise Hydrology
4.4 (14 reviews) Read reviews
ISBN: 978-87-7681-536-3
1 edition
Pages : 122
Price: Free

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About the book

  1. Description
  2. Content
  3. Preface
  4. Embed

Description

This is an introductory book on hydrology that covers the fundamental theories on hydrological cycle (water balance, atmospheric water, subsurface water, surface water), precipitation analysis, evaporation and evapotranspiration processes, infiltration, ground water movement, hydrograph analysis, rainfall runoff modelling (unit hydrograph), hydrological flow routing, measurements and data collection, hydrological statistics and hydrological design. The text has been written in a concise format that is integrated with the relevant graphics, examples, questions, answers and full solutions.

Content

Preface

1. Introduction
1.1 Hydrological Cycle
1.2 Key Hydrological Processes
1.3 Common Units
1.4 Water Distribution in Space and Time
1.5 Water Balance
1.6 Catchment
1.7 Practice

2. Precipitation
2.1 Atmosphere Water
2.2 Precipitation Types
2.3 Rain drop size and velocity
2.4 Precipitation data
2.5 Double Mass Curve
2.6 Areal Rainfall
2.6.1 Arithmetic Mean
2.6.2 Thiessen Polygon Method
2.6.3 Isohyetal Method
2.6.4 Geostatistics

3. Evaporation and Evapotranspiration
3.1 Relevant Basic Terms
3.1.1 Flux
3.1.2 Radiation emission
3.1.3 Net radiation
3.1.4 Vapour pressure and relative humidity
3.1.5 Sensible heat
3.1.6 Latent heat
3.2 Evaporation from Open Water Surface
3.2.1 Energy balance method
3.2.2 Aerodynamic method
3.2.3 Combined method
3.3 Evapotranspiration from Land
3.4 Field measurements
3.4.1 Pan
3.4.2 Lysimeter
3.4.3 Eddy covariance
3.4.4 Catchment/reservoir water balance

4. Infiltration
4.1 Relevant Basic Terms
4.1.1 Porosity
4.1.2 Soil moisture content
4.1.3 Vadose zone (unsaturated zone)
4.1.4 Field capacity
4.1.5 Soil moisture defi cit (SMD)
4.1.6 Darcy’s law (saturated soil)
4.1.7 Pore velocity in soil
4.1.8 Darcy’s law (unsaturated soil)
4.2 Infi ltration Process
4.3 Estimation of Infi ltration Rate
4.3.1 Horton’s Equation (1940)
4.3.2 Index
4.3.1 Green-Ampt method
4.4 Infi ltration measurements
4.4.1 Infi ltrometer
4.4.2 Artifi cial rain simulation

5. Groundwater
5.1 Basic Terms
5.1.1 Aquifer
5.1.2 Water table
5.1.3 Aquitard
5.1.4 Unconfi ned aquifer
5.1.5 Confi ned aquifer
5.1.6 Artesian aquifer/well
5.1.7 Water well
5.1.8 Borehole
5.1.9 Piezometric surface
5.1.10 Base flow
5.1.11 Groundwater Recharge
5.1.12 Fossil water
5.2 Characteristics of Confi ned/Unconfi ned Groundwater
5.3 The Basic Flow Equations
5.4 Steady Flow
5.4.1 Unconfi ned flow to a well
5.4.2 Confi ned flow to a well
5.5 Unsteady Flow
5.6 Computer Software
5.6.1 MODFLOW
5.6.2 FEFLOW
5.6.3 MIKE SHE

6. Hydrograph
6.1 Basic Terms
6.1.1 River Runoff
6.1.2 Infi ltration excess runoff
6.1.3 Saturation excess runoff
6.1.4 Direct runoff
6.1.5 Hydrograph components
6.2 Flow Event Separation
6.3 Direct Runoff and Base Flow Separation
6.4 Effective Rainfall (Net Rainfall)
6.4.1 The Φ index method
6.4.2 The initial and continuing losses
6.4.3 The proportional losses
6.4.4 Soil moisture accounting scheme
6.5 Direct Runoff Modelling (Unit Hydrograph)
6.5.1 Unit hydrograph definition
6.5.2 Unit hydrograph application
6.5.3 Unit hydrograph estimation
6.5.4 Unit hydrograph duration change (S-Curve)
6.5.5 Synthetic unit hydrograph

7. Flow Routing
7.1 Basic Equations
7.2 River Flow Routing (The Muskingum Method)
7.2.1 The outfl ow equation
7.2.2 Estimation of K and X
7.3 Reservoir Flow Routing

8. Hydrological Measurements
8.1 Basic terms
8.1.1 Time series
8.1.2 Time domain
8.1.3 Frequency domain
8.1.4 Spatial data
8.1.5 Spatial time series
8.1.6 Aliasing
8.1.7 Nyquist frequency
8.2 Land based measurements
8.2.1 Rain gauge
8.2.2 Snow pillow
8.2.3 Evaporation pan
8.2.4 Lysimeter
8.2.5 River weir/flume
8.2.6 Soil moisture sensors
8.2.7 Infi ltrometer
8.2.8 Radiation sensors
8.2.9 Anemometer
8.2.10 Air Temperature
8.2.11 Hygrometer
8.2.12 Barometer
8.2.13 Weather radar
8.3 Air based measurements
8.3.1 Weather balloon
8.3.2 Aircraft
8.4 Space based measurements
8.4.1 Orbit
8.4.2 Spectrum
8.4.3 Passive and active microwave
8.4.4 Validation
8.5 Transportable Weather Station

9. Hydrological Statistics
9.1 Basic Terms
9.1.1 Probability
9.1.2 Return Period
9.1.3 Probability relationships
9.1.4 Probability distributions
9.2 Statistical Flood Estimation
9.2.1 Empirical probability
9.2.2 General procedure for flood estimation
9.3 Statistical Rainfall Estimation

10. Hydrological Design
10.1 Reservoir and dam
10.2 Basic design procedures
10.2.1 Water demand
10.2.2 Catchment yield
10.2.3 Reservoir storage estimation
10.2.4 Dam height

Appendix: Further Reading Resources

Preface

Hydrology is a branch of scientific and engineering discipline that deals with the occurrence, distribution, movement, and properties of the waters of the earth. A knowledge of hydrology is fundamental to water and environmental professionals (engineers, scientists and decision makers) in such tasks as the design and operation of water resources, wastewater treatment, irrigation, flood defence, navigation, pollution control, hydropower, ecosystem modelling, etc. This is an introductory book on hydrology and written for undergraduate students in civil and environmental engineering, environmental science and geography. The aim of this book is to provide a concise coverage of key contents in hydrology that is easy to access through the Internet.

The book covers the fundamental theories on hydrological cycle (water balance, atmospheric water, subsurface water, surface water), precipitation analysis, evaporation and evapotranspiration processes, infiltration, ground water movement, hydrograph analysis, rainfall runoff modelling (unit hydrograph), hydrological flow routing, measurements and data collection, hydrological statistics and hydrological design. The text has been written in a concise format that is integrated with the relevant graphics. There are many examples to further explain the theories introduced. The questions at the end of each chapter are accompanied by the corresponding answers and full solutions. A list of recommended reading resources is provided in the appendix for readers to further explore the interested hydrological topics.

Dawei Han
Reader in Civil and Environmental Engineering,

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