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In many types of biochemical and pharmaceutical industries fluid bed granulation in the form of agglomeration and coating processes are essential unit operations in the production of solid products.
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About the book
In many types of biochemical and pharmaceutical industries fluid bed granulation in the form of agglomeration and coating processes are essential unit operations in the production of solid products. In order to fully understand the underlying mechanisms behind the numerous phenomena taking place during granulation, it is necessary to study the particle-level phenomena. This is the topic for the present text where relevant models and theory are presented. Thus, you will get an in-depth analysis of the advanced particle-level principles and theory within this important field on a bachelor or master-of-science level.
The present text concerns the micro-level (particle-level) perspective on the different stages of the granulation process. A range of the newest and advanced quantitative models is presented hereby introducing recent advances in wetting and nucleation modelling, and theory describing granule growth behaviour. The different bonding mechanisms and the strength of liquid bonded particles are emphasised and recent advances in simulation of wet granule breakage is reviewed. Further, some of the more advanced coalescence models are introduced with primary focus on class I models accounting for coalescence of non-deformable as well as deformable granules.
The text is aimed at undergraduate university or engineering-school students working in the field chemical and biochemical engineering as well as particle technology. Newly graduated as well as experienced engineers may also find relevant new information as emphasis is put on the newest scientific discoveries and proposals presented in the last few years of scientific publications. It is the hope that the present text will provide a complete and up-to-date image of how far modern granulation theory has come, and also further provide the reader with qualitative rules of thumb that may be essential when working with granulation processes. The comprehensive literature list may also hopefully be an inspiration for further reading.
I alone am responsible for any misprints or errors and I will be grateful to receive any critics and/or suggestions for further improvements.
Copenhagen, September 2006
Peter Dybdahl Hede
1. Fluid bed agglomeration at particle level
1.1 Mechanisms involved in the growth rate of granules
1.2 Wetting and nucleation
1.3 Granule growth behaviour and kinetics
1.3.1 Mechanical properties of liquid-bound granules
22.214.171.124 Interparticle forces
126.96.36.199 Static strength – capillary and surface tension forces
188.8.131.52 Dynamic strength - viscous forces
184.108.40.206 Breakage and attrition of wet granules
220.127.116.11 Wet granule strength summary
1.3.2 Granule growth modelling – Class I and Class II models
18.104.22.168 Class I models: Coalescence of non-deformable granules
22.214.171.124 Class I models: Coalescence of deformable granules
1.3.3 Granule growth regimes
Table of symbols
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