Solved Material Balance Problems

Pollution Prevention and Control

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362 pages
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 English
This book is a collection of solved material balance problems for tracking the flow of materials in a variety of water pollution, air pollution, and solid waste management systems.
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Paul Mac Berthouex, Emeritus Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, holds two engineering degrees from the University of Iowa and a PhD from UW-Madison. He has been awarded the Harrison Prescott Eddy medal by the Water Environment Federation, and twic...

Linfield C. Brown is Emeritus Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University. He has B.S. and M.S. degrees from Tufts and the PhD from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He joined the faculty at Tufts in 1970, and served as Chair of Civil and Environmental Engineering from 1981-1...

Description
Content

  • Preface
  1. The Fundamentals of Design
    1. Block diagrams
    2. Process synthesis
    3. Block diagram - sorting municipal refuse
    4. Block diagram - high quality process water
    5. Process material balance
    6. Air emissions
    7. Conventional water treatment
    8. Membrane water treatment
    9. Separations – hot chocolate
    10. Process invention - 1
    11. Process invention - 2
    12. Neutralization process
  2. Pollutants
    1. Definitions
    2. Lumped measurements
    3. Solids in wastewater
    4. Turbidity
    5. Color
    6. Wastewater solids
    7. Carbon
    8. BOD and COD - 1
    9. Measuring BOD
    10. Biodegradable organics in wastewater
    11. BOD and COD - 2
    12. Nitrogen compounds
    13. Nitrogen as an air pollutant
    14. Phosphorus
    15. Sulfur
    16. Particulates in air
    17. Particle size distribution
    18. Inertial impact collecter
    19. Toxic metals
    20. Toxic organic compounds
  3. Quantifying pollutants
    1. Sludge volume and mass
    2. Cucumbers
    3. Superfund creosote site
    4. Sludge solids
    5. Primary sludge
    6. Slurry density
    7. Salt by evaporation
    8. Electrostatic precipitator
    9. Solids measurement
    10. Population equivalent - 1
    11. Industrial equivalent
    12. Population equivalent - 2
    13. Sour mash stillage
    14. Clarified effluent
    15. Cadmium in sludge
    16. Metals in solid waste
    17. Dust fall
    18. Lead in baghouse dust
    19. Printing plant air emissions
    20. Gas tank capacity
    21. Gas volumes
    22. Volume concentration
    23. Mixture of ideal gases
    24. Gas adjusted for moisture
    25. Dust pollution
    26. Waste gas composition
    27. Toluene emissions
    28. Cadmium in wastewater
    29. Liquid alum
    30. Ion exchange water softening
    31. Mass flow rate calculation
    32. Soil contamination in nigerian landfill
    33. Heavy metals in compost
    34. Shredded municipal bulky waste
    35. Mixed solid waste
    36. Air pollution unit conversions
    37. Coal-fired boiler exhaust gas
  4. Conservation of mass
    1. Solvent emissions
    2. Mixing liquids
    3. Mixing gases
    4. Industries join municipality
    5. Primary settling tank
    6. Stack gas flow
    7. Waste discharge to a stream
    8. Boiler blowdown
    9. Dye tracer to measure flow
    10. Demineralized water
    11. Well water contamination
    12. Refuse derived fuel processing
    13. Oil recovery with membranes
    14. Water conservation for a refinery
    15. Sludge thickening and disposal
    16. Thickener recycle
    17. Wet scrubber water use
    18. Solvent removal from air
    19. Gas preheating
    20. Biological treatment
    21. Step aeration
    22. Single-stage rinsing
    23. Two-stage crossflow rinse
    24. Reverse osmosis circuit
    25. Smelter dust beneficiation
    26. Drying solids
    27. Anchovy processing
    28. Anaerobic sludge digestion
    29. Solvent vapor emissions
    30. Oil and grease removal
    31. River pollution newspaper story
    32. River dilution
    33. Oil sands
    34. Water softening sludge
    35. Alum coagulation sludge
    36. Four-stage evaporation
    37. Bioconcentration
    38. Henry’s law and volatilization
    39. Partitioning of pyrene in soil
    40. Partitioning 1,2-dichlorobenzene
    41. Partitioning 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-dioxin
    42. Partitioning DDT
  5. Material balance and pollution prevention
    1. Metabolism of a factory
    2. Zero discharge
    3. Pollution prevention focus questions
    4. Inefficient water use
    5. Semiconductor manufacturing
    6. Water for soft drink manufacturing
    7. Hidden and avoided costs
    8. Solvent recovery payback
    9. Waste minimization survey
    10. Vegetable processing industry water reuse
    11. Polymer recycling
    12. Coca-cola
  6. Material balance with chemical reactions
    1. Burning octane
    2. Combustion of gasoline
    3. Combustion - 1
    4. Combustion - 2
    5. Composting stoichiometry
    6. Combustion of municipal refuse
    7. NOx control
    8. Saline effluent
    9. Flue gas desulfurization
    10. Water softening
    11. Chemical treatment of wastewater
    12. Phosphorus precipitation
    13. Metal plating
    14. Chemical and biological phosphorus removal
    15. Ammonium sulfate recovery from flue gas
    16. Suspended solids removal
    17. Sludge digester gas (methane)
  7. Reaction rates and reactor design
    1. Detention time
    2. Rate coefficient determines the exponential decrease
    3. First order reaction
    4. Bacterial die-off in a river
    5. Half-life for a first-oder reaction
    6. Half-life reactions
    7. Pollutant decomposition
    8. Rate coefficient for a first-order reaction
    9. Dye effluent degradation
    10. Simple reaction - 1
    11. Simple reaction - 2
    12. Gaseous reaction
    13. Ozone kinetics
    14. Temperature and the reaction rate
    15. Degradation of atrazine
    16. Second-order reaction
    17. Rate of dinitrotoluene (DNT) removal
    18. Dissolution of lead
    19. Biotransformation
    20. Pesticide degradation – laboratory experiment
    21. Chlorine decomposition
    22. DDT persistance
    23. Bioconcentration factor
    24. Bioaccumulation & depuration
    25. Metabolites of pesticides
    26. Parallel reaction
    27. Ozone decolorization of acid yellow dye
    28. Pesticide degradation
    29. Pollutant removal in a CSTR
    30. Pollutant removal in two CSTRs in series
    31. Mixed-order model
    32. Detention time for a CSTR
    33. Detention time for two CSTRs in series
    34. Graphical solution for two CSTRs in series
    35. Fitting models
  8. Material balance for biological processes
    1. BOD - 1
    2. BOD - 2
    3. BOD of soybean oil
    4. Kinetics of BOD removal
    5. BOD removal in a lagoon
    6. BOD removal and temperature
    7. Biomass yield factor
    8. Waste activated sludge
    9. Sludge age for nitrification
    10. Sludge age control
    11. Recycle to primary settling tank
    12. Balance on activated sludge solids
    13. Activated sludge aeration basin as cstrs in series
    14. Aerobic lagoon
    15. Wastewater treatment using 4 lagoons in series
    16. Wastewater treatment plant mass balance - 1
    17. Wastewater treatment plant mass balance - 2
    18. Sludge volume index
    19. Oxygen supply
    20. Oxygen requirement
    21. Oxygen demand
    22. Deer island digesters
    23. Methane production
    24. Anaerobic treatment
    25. Anaerobic sludge digestion
    26. Food waste
    27. Anaerobic biodegrdation index
    28. Mouras automatic scavenger
    29. Anaerobic sludge digestion
    30. Two-staged anaerobic digesters
    31. Temperature-phased digester (thermophilic + mesophilic)
    32. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor
    33. Agricultural biogas gas
    34. Dairy manure
    35. Co-digesting food waste and sludge
    36. Biokinetics
    37. Haldane inhibition model
    38. COD removal from refinery wastewater
    39. Reactor detention time
    40. Synthetic media biofilters
    41. Trickling filter hydraulic loading
    42. Biofilter for odor control
    43. Cannery waste treatment
    44. Landfill gas activity
    45. Composting temperature
    46. Composting sludge cake
    47. Sludge-refuse mixture for composting
    48. Casio city and the ATOZINC rayon company
  9. The unsteady-state material balance
    1. Filtration
    2. Wetlands water budget
    3. BOD load equalization
    4. Pumping station
    5. Batch reactor
    6. Smoothing concentrations
    7. Filling a leaky tank
    8. Dilution of a salt solution
    9. CSTRs in series
    10. Sludge digesters
    11. Lake pollution
    12. Chlorides in the great lakes
    13. PCB in lake trout
  10. Water conservation and reuse
    1. Industrial water consumption
    2. Cooling water
    3. Water recycle saves money
    4. Water flow impacts cash flow
    5. Industrial water balance
    6. Cooling tower
    7. Cooling tower with recycle makeup water
    8. Cooling tower water consumption
    9. Water reuse for cooling systems
    10. Water reuse
    11. Recycle and reuse
    12. Membrane process for regeneration and reuse
    13. Nearest neighbor - 1
    14. Nearest neighbor - 2
    15. Mass transfer process
    16. Two process system
    17. Water reuse – minimum flowrate
    18. Composite mass-concentration curve
    19. Process water regeneration and recycle
    20. Water reclamation system - 1
    21. Water reclamation system - 2
  11. Appendix 1 – Atomic Mass of Selected Elements
  12. Appendix 2 - Conversion Factors
  13. Appendix 3 – Densities and Specific Weights

Solved Material Balance Problems is a collection of solved problems to accompany the text Pollution Prevention and Control: Material Balances published by Bookboon.com. Problems are directed toward mastering common material balance calculations and procedures, and include discussion and open-ended questions. The exercises cover water, wastewater, air and other gases, soil, and solid waste, and have varying degrees of difficulty. Topics include water conservation, material balances with chemical reaction, biological processes, and processes where volumetric and mass flow rates vary over time.

About authors

Mac Berthouex, Emeritus Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, holds two engineering degrees from the University of Iowa and a PhD from UW-Madison. He has been awarded the Harrison Prescott Eddy medal by the Water Environment Federation, and twice was awarded the Rudolph Hering medal by the American Society of Civil Engineers. He is a member of the University of Iowa Distinguished Engineering Alumni Academy. At UW-madison he taught industrial pollution control, cost engineering, and process design. He has advised more than 100 M.S. and PhD students. Before joining the UW-Madison he was Chief Research Engineer for GKW Consult in Mannheim, Germany, where he designed the water treatment plant for Lagos, Nigeria. He has been project manager of three Asian Development Bank projects in Indonesia and Korea, and has worked in India, Samoa, New Zealand, England, Denmark, Taiwan, and Mexico. He is co-author, with Dale Rudd, of ‘The Strategy of Pollution Control’ and with Linfield Brown of ‘Statistics for Environmental Engineers’.

Linfield C. Brown is Emeritus Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University. He has B.S. and M.S. degrees from Tufts and the PhD from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He joined the faculty at Tufts in 1970, and served as Chair of Civil and Environmental Engineering from 1981-1992. He taught engineering statistics, water chemistry, environmental modeling, and process design at Tufts. Tufts honored him with the Lillian Liebner Award for excellence in teaching. He helped to develop the QUAL2E and QUAL2E-UNCAS water-quality models, has been a consultant on water-quality modeling to the U.S EPA and a variety of states, industries, and engineering companies, and has taught modeling courses in England, Hungary, Poland, and Spain. He is an expert in environmental statistics and co-author of ‘Statistics for Environmental Engineers’ and has taught many short-courses on this subject.