Energy Management for Pollution Control

av Paul Mac Berthouex & Linfield Brown
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248 pages
This book is about making energy balances to evaluate and manage the production, use, and recovery of energy for water pollution control, air pollution control, and solid waste management.
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Energy Management for Pollution Control is about strategies and skills that are used to solve problems for water pollution control, air pollution control, and solid waste management. The fundamental laws of conservation of energy and conservation of mass are used to evaluate energy requirements for heating and pumping, using waste solids and gases as fuel, including biogas from digesters and landfills, and the economic of energy management. Many solved examples and case studies are provided. This is an engineering text, but the concepts and calculations are accessible to non-engineers.

About the authors

Mac Berthouex, Emeritus Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, holds two engineering degrees from the University of Iowa and a PhD from UW-Madison. He has been awarded the Harrison Prescott Eddy medal by the Water Environment Federation, and twice was awarded the Rudolph Hering medal by the American Society of Civil Engineers. He is a member of the University of Iowa Distinguished Engineering Alumni Academy. At UW-madison he taught industrial pollution control, cost engineering, and process design. He has advised more than 100 M.S. and PhD students. Before joining the UW-Madison he was Chief Research Engineer for GKW Consult in Mannheim, Germany, where he designed the water treatment plant for Lagos, Nigeria. He has been project manager of three Asian Development Bank projects in Indonesia and Korea, and has worked in India, Samoa, New Zealand, England, Denmark, Taiwan, and Mexico. He is co-author, with Dale Rudd, of ‘The Strategy of Pollution Control’ and with Linfield Brown of ‘Statistics for Environmental Engineers’.

Linfield C. Brown is Emeritus Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University. He has B.S. and M.S. degrees from Tufts and the PhD from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He joined the faculty at Tufts in 1970, and served as Chair of Civil and Environmental Engineering from 1981-1992. He taught engineering statistics, water chemistry, environmental modeling, and process design at Tufts. Tufts honored him with the Lillian Liebner Award for excellence in teaching. He helped to develop the QUAL2E and QUAL2E-UNCAS water-quality models, has been a consultant on water-quality modeling to the U.S EPA and a variety of states, industries, and engineering companies, and has taught modeling courses in England, Hungary, Poland, and Spain. He is an expert in environmental statistics and co-author of ‘Statistics for Environmental Engineers’ and has taught many short-courses on this subject.

  • Preface 
  1. Energy Management 
    1. Conservation of Mass and Energy 
    2. Process Integration 
    3. Conclusion 
  2. The Laws of Thermodynamics 
    1. Three Laws of Thermodynamics 
    2. Conservation of Energy – The First Law of Thermodynamics 
    3. The Heat Trap – The Second Law of Thermodynamics 
    4. Conclusion
  3. Energy Units and Energy Conversion 
    1. Work, Power and Energy 
    2. Arithmetic Equivalence of Energy Units
    3. Energy Conversion Efficiency 
    4. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) 
    5. Wind Energy 
    6. Solar Energy 
    7. The Future of Renewable Energy
    8. Conclusion 
  4. The Energy Balance and Enthalpy
    1. Enthalpy 
    2. Specific Heat 
    3. The Energy Balance
    4. Cooling Towers 
    5. Refrigeration 
    6. Boiler Efficiency and Water Use
    7. Conclusion 
  5. Combustion of Municipal Refuse
    1. Stoichiometry
    2. Combustion Stoichiometry
    3. Composition of Solid Waste 
    4. Heating Value of Waste Materials 
    5. Incineration of Solid Waste and Sludge 
    6. Case Study – Palm Beach Renewable Energy Facility No. 2
    7. Conclusion 
  6. Energy Recovery from Biogas 
    1. Composition of Biogas 
    2. Energy Recovery from Landfill Gas
    3. Model for Landfill Gas Production 
    4. Energy Recovery from Anaerobic Sludge Digestion
    5. Gas Treatment Technologies 
    6. Conclusion 
  7. Incineration of Waste Gas 
    1. Safety – The Explosive Limits 
    2. Gas Composition 
    3. Thermal Incineration 
    4. Catalytic Incineration of Waste Gases 
    5. Case Study - Recovery of Heat from Combustion of Waste Gases 
    6. Case Study - Energy Balance on a Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer 
    7. Conclusion 
  8. Energy Conservative Design 
    1. Heat Exchangers 
    2. Heat Exchanger Networks 
    3. Pinch Analysis for Heat Exchanger Network Design 
    4. Conclusion 
  9. Energy for Pumping 
    1. Pump Efficiency 
    2. Pressure and Head 
    3. The Pump Curve, Efficiency Curve, and System Curve
    4. Motor Efficiency 
    5. Power Requirements 
    6. Calculating Head Losses from K Values 
    7. Pipe Networks 
    8. Conclusion 
  10. Energy for Blowers and Compressors 
    1. Blowers 
    2. Aeration in Wastewater Treatment 
    3. The Demand for Oxygen and Air 
    4. Air Delivery Pressure 
    5. Blower Power 
    6. Variations in Air Flow Rates 
    7. Conclusion 
  11. The Economics of Energy Management 
    1. Energy Use in Water and Wastewater Treatment 
    2. Costs Estimates 
    3. Capital Cost Estimates 
    4. Economy of scale 
    5. Planning Costs for Pumps 
    6. Cost of Electricity 
    7. Peak Energy Demand and Peak Charges 
    8. Saving by Shedding Peak Loads 
    9. The Cost of Steam 
    10. The Time Value of Money 
    11. Payback Time 
    12. Adjusting Cost Between Future and Present Time
    13. Uniform Annual Payments 
    14. Comparing Two Projects 
    15. Life Cycle Cost 
    16. Inflation 
    17. Conclusion 
  12. References 
  13. Appendix 1 – Abridged Table of Atomic Numbers and Atomic Masses   
  14. Appendix 2 – Conversion Factors 
  15. Appendix 3 -Densities and Specific Weights 
  16. Appendix 4 – Heating Values 
  17. Appendix 5 – Enthalpy of Water and Steam
  18. Appendix 6 – Enthalpy of Air 
  19. Appendix 7 – Lower and Upper Explosive Limits for selected volatile compounds 
  20. Appendix 8 – Financial Tables 
  • Index