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Energy Management Study Guide

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Language:  English
This is a collection of solved energy balance problems for evaluating the production, use, and recovery of energy for water pollution control, air pollution control, and solid waste management.
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Energy Management Study Guide is a collection of solved problems to accompany the text Energy Management for Pollution Control published by The problems are about making energy balances to evaluate the production, use, and recovery of energy for pollution prevention and control. Problems directed toward mastering everyday energy balance calculations and procedures, as well as discussion and open-ended questions are included. The exercises are about water, wastewater, air and other gases, soil, and solid waste, and with varying degrees of difficulty.

About the authors

Mac Berthouex, Emeritus Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, holds two engineering degrees from the University of Iowa and a PhD from UW-Madison. He has been awarded the Harrison Prescott Eddy medal by the Water Environment Federation, and twice was awarded the Rudolph Hering medal by the American Society of Civil Engineers. He is a member of the University of Iowa Distinguished Engineering Alumni Academy. At UW-madison he taught industrial pollution control, cost engineering, and process design. He has advised more than 100 M.S. and PhD students. Before joining the UW-Madison he was Chief Research Engineer for GKW Consult in Mannheim, Germany, where he designed the water treatment plant for Lagos, Nigeria. He has been project manager of three Asian Development Bank projects in Indonesia and Korea, and has worked in India, Samoa, New Zealand, England, Denmark, Taiwan, and Mexico. He is co-author, with Dale Rudd, of ‘The Strategy of Pollution Control’ and with Linfield Brown of ‘Statistics for Environmental Engineers’.

Linfield C. Brown is Emeritus Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University. He has B.S. and M.S. degrees from Tufts and the PhD from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He joined the faculty at Tufts in 1970, and served as Chair of Civil and Environmental Engineering from 1981-1992. He taught engineering statistics, water chemistry, environmental modeling, and process design at Tufts. Tufts honored him with the Lillian Liebner Award for excellence in teaching. He helped to develop the QUAL2E and QUAL2E-UNCAS water-quality models, has been a consultant on water-quality modeling to the U.S EPA and a variety of states, industries, and engineering companies, and has taught modeling courses in England, Hungary, Poland, and Spain. He is an expert in environmental statistics and co-author of ‘Statistics for Environmental Engineers’ and has taught many short-courses on this subject.

  • Preface
  • Introduction - The Material Balance
  1. Energy Management
    1. Energy And Material Flow
    2. Synthesis And Analysis
    3. Separators And Reactors
  2. The Laws of Thermodynamics
    1. Low-Grade Energy
    2. The Three R’s
    3. Power Plant Waste Heat
    4. Carnot Engine I
    5. Carnot Engine II
  3. Energy Units and Energy Conversion
    1. U.S. Household Energy Use
    2. Home Heating Efficiency
    3. Efficiency Of Heating Water
    4. Fuel Choices
    5. A Drop In The Boiler
    6. Power Plant Ash I
    7. Power Plant Ash II
    8. Combined Heat And Power (CHP)
    9. Refuse To Electricity
    10. Historical Efficiency Of Producing Electricity  
    11. 150 Years Ago
    12. Energy Demand Growth
    13. Alaska Pipeline
    14. Windmill Power
    15. Wind Energy To Electrical Energy
    16. Wind Energy I
    17. Wind Energy II
    18. Wind Turbine Evolution
    19. Wind Tubine Power Rating
    20. Wind Speed Variation And Power Generation  
    21. Photovoltaic Conversion Of Solar Energy To Electrical Energy
    22. Value Of Energy In Sunlight
    23. Solar Energy – Roof Collection
    24. Ethanol Energy Balance
  4. The Energy Balance and Enthalpy
    1. Enthalpy Of Evaporation
    2. Power Plant Cooling Water
    3. Making Steam
    4. High Temperature Steam (U.S. Units)
    5. High Temperature Steam (SI Units)
    6. Cooling Air With Water (U.S. Units)
    7. Cooling Air With Water (SI Units)
    8. Enthalphy Of Humid Air (SI Units)
    9. Enthalphy Of Humid Air (U.S. Units)
    10. Specific Heat Of A Nitrogen-Oxygen Mixture
    11. Heat Recovery
    12. Condensing Ethanol
    13. Cheese Making – Ammonia Condensation
    14. Combustion Air Pre-Heater I
    15. Combustion Air Preheater II
    16. Cotton Textiles
    17. Heat Exchange For Wastewater Sludge
    18. Air-To-Flue Gas Heat Exchanger
    19. Internet Technical Chat On Sludge Heating
    20. Heat Recovery From Centrifuged Sludge
    21. Heat Exchanger Duty
    22. Precooling Air For Baghouse Filter
    23. Gas Stream Cooling Requirements
    24. Air Conditioning
    25. Ventilation & Heating
    26. Boiler
    27. Cooling Tower Range And Approach
    28. Cooling Tower Efficiency
    29. Cooling Capacity
    30. Ton Of Refrigeration
    31. Ton Of Refrigeration – Rules Of Thumb
    32. Boiler Horsepower
    33. Boiler Fuel Consumption
  5. Combustion of Municipal Refuse
    1. Combustion Of Organics
    2. Incineration Of Hydrocarbons
    3. Combustion Of Municipal Refuse
    4. Empirical Formula For A Mixed Solid Waste
    5. Refuse As Fuel
    6. Heating Value Of Municipal Refuse
    7. Refuse Derived Fuel
  6. Energy Recovery from Biogas
    1. Stoichiometric Combustion Of Methane
    2. Landfill Gas
    3. Methane Production In A Landfill
    4. Landfill Gas Production Capacity
    5. Model For Landfill Gas Production
    6. EPA Landgem Methane Production Forecasts
    7. Open Flare Burning Of Waste Landfill Waste Gas
    8. Energy Balance For Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion
    9. Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion
    10. Energy From Manure
    11. Gas Utilization Options
    12. Digester Gas For Microturbine Electricity Generation
  7. Thermal Incineration Of Waste Gas
    1. Lower Explosive Limit Of Toluene  
    2. Lower Explosive Limit Of A VOC Mixture
    3. Combustion Of Hydrocarbons
    4. Combustion Of Gasoline
    5. Burning Ethane
    6. Burning A Mixture Of Gases
    7. Combustion Of A Hydrocarbon Mixture I
    8. Combustion Of A Hydrocarbon Mixture II
    9. Combustion Stoichiometry
    10. Hazardous Waste Incineration Stoichiometry
    11. Combustion Temperatures
    12. Combustion Chamber Volume
    13. Hazardous Waste Incineration
    14. Thermal Oxidation
    15. Thermal Incineration  
    16. Catalytic Combustion
    17. Meat Packing Plant Odor Control
    18. Burning Waste Gas
    19. Heat Recovery I
    20. Heat Recovery II
    21. Combustion Fuel Requirement
    22. Waste Gas Oxidation
  8. Energy Conservative Design
    1. Countercurrent Heat Exchanger Area
    2. Co-Current Heat Exchanger Area
    3. Heat Transfer Area
    4. Odor Control  
    5. Heat Exchangers In Series
    6. Recirculating System
    7. Heating And Cooling A Reactor I
    8. Reactor System Redesign
    9. Heating And Cooling A Reactor II
    10. Cooling A Reactor
    11. Heat Exchanger Network Design I
    12. Heat Exchanger Network Design II
    13. Heat Exchange Network
  9. Energy Consumption By Pumping
    1. System Head Curve
    2. Change In Pump Efficiency
    3. Pump Efficiency
    4. Throttled Pump Characteristic Curve
    5. Head Loss In A Straight Pipe
    6. Head Loss In A Pipe With Three Elbows
    7. Head Loss With A Gate Valve
    8. Static Head Plus Dynamic Head
    9. System Curve And Pump Efficiency
    10. Pumping System
    11. Pipe Loop I
    12. Pipe Loop II 
    13. Pumping Between Two Reservoirs
    14. Heating System
  10. Energy for Blowers & Compressors
    1. Blower Operating Curve
    2. Wastewater Aeration
    3. Estimating The Required Air Flow
    4. Pressure Drop In Fine Bubble Diffuser System (U.S. Units)
    5. Pressure Drop In Fine Bubble Diffuser System (SI Units)
    6. Blower Outlet Temperature
    7. Blower Power (U.S. Units)
    8. Blower Power (SI Units)
    9. Diurnal Air Flow Variation
  11. Economics of Energy Management
    1. Energy For Drinking Water And Wastewater Utilities
    2. Energy For Wastewater Treatment
    3. Wastewater Treatment Plant Energy I
    4. Wastewater Treatment Plant Energy II
    5. Compressed Air
    6. Cost Of Compressed Air
    7. Economy Of Scale – Heat Exchangers
    8. Joint Treatment
    9. Polluton Prevention Saves
    10. Audit Of Pumping Energy
    11. Electric Bill
    12. Peak Electrical Demand Charges
    13. Demand Charges
    14. Payback Time For Spray Painting
    15. Payback Period I
    16. Payback Period II
    17. Savings At Sheboygan WI
    18. Future Value Of Money
    19. Present Value Of Money
    20. Aerated Lagoon Energy Savings
    21. Loan Repayment
    22. Comparing Two Pumps
    23. Air Compressor Life Cycle Cost
    24. Cost Of Lifting Water
    25. Water Filtration
    26. Temporary Water Main
    27. Activated Sludge Air Supply
    28. Pumping Between Two Reservoirs (SI Units)
  12. Appendix 1 - Abridged Table of Atomic Numbers and Atomic Masses
  13. Appendix 2 - Conversion Factors
  14. Appendix 3 - Densities and Specific Weights
  15. Appendix 4 – Heating Values
  16. Appendix 5 – Enthalpy of Water and Steam
  17. Appendix 6 – Enthalpy of Air
  18. Appendix 7 - Lower and Upper Explosive Limits
  19. Appendix 8 – Financial Tables

About the Authors

Paul Mac Berthouex

Linfield C. Brown