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Pollution Prevention and Control

Material Balances

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Language:  English
This book is about building strategies and skills that are widely used to solve material balance problems to design and understand water pollution, air pollution, and solid waste management systems.
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  • Preface
  1. The Fundamentals of Design
    1. Conservation of Mass and Energy
    2. Process Integration
    3. Conclusion
  2. Pollutants
    1. Classes of Pollutants
    2. Aggregated or Lumped Measurements
    3. Particulates and Dissolved Solids in Water and Wastewater
    4. Turbidity and Color
    5. Carbon Compounds and Organic Carbon
    6. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
    7. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
    8. pH and Alkalinity
    9. Ammonia and Nitrogen Compounds
    10. Phosphorus
    11. Sulfur
    12. Particulates in Air
    13. Toxic Metals
    14. Toxic Organic Compounds
    15. Conclusion
  3. Quantifying Pollutants
    1. Units and Conversions
    2. Liquids, Sludge and Solids
    3. Mass Percentage and Mass Fraction
    4. Density of Slurries and Sludges
    5. Mass Flow Rates
    6. Gases- The Ideal Gas Law
    7. Volume Fraction and Volume Concentration
    8. Molar Mass and Molar Concentration
    9. Pollutant Concentrations in Gases
    10. Gas Mixtures & Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
    11. Conclusion
  4. Conservation of Mass
    1. Accumulation of Mass
    2. Style In Material Balance Formulation
    3. Separations
    4. 4Water Conservation in Rinsing Operations
    5. Adsorption
    6. Effluent Limits and Waste Load Allocation
    7. Pollutant Partitioning Between Air, Water, and Soil
    8. Conclusion
  5. The Material Balance and Pollution Prevention
    1. Pollution Audit - The First Steps
    2. Case Study – Sweet Potato Canning
    3. Case Study – Water Reuse and Toxic Metals Management
    4. Case Study - Reducing Phenol Emissions
    5. Case Study – Reclaiming Gallium Arsenide from Semiconductor Manufacturing
    6. Case Study – Membrane Processes Recover Protein from Whey
    7. Conclusion
  6. Material Balances for Chemical Processes
    1. Material Balances with Chemical Reactions
    2. Reaction Stoichiometry
    3. Case Study - Chemical Precipitation of Metals
    4. Environmental Impact Study – Cutter Chemicals
    5. Conclusion
  7. Reaction Rates and Reactor Design
    1. Batch and Plug Flow Reactors
    2. Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)
    3. Detention Time
    4. Rates of Reaction
    5. First-Order Reactions
    6. Identifying the Rate Law
    7. Material Balance with a Rate of Reaction Term
    8. Material Balance for Batch and Plug Flow Reactors
    9. Material Balance on a CSTR with Reactions
    10. Using a CSTR to Estimate the Rate of Reaction
    11. CSTR Reactors in Series
    12. Mixed-Order Reactions in a CSTR
    13. Conclusion
  8. Material Balance for Biological Processes
    1. Integrated Biological Systems
    2. Aerobic and Anaerobic Biological Transformations
    3. Chemical vs. Biological Transformations
    4. The Activated Sludge Process
    5. Activated Sludge Process – First Order Kinetics
    6. Solids Management and Solids Retention Time (Sludge Age)
    7. Empirical Stoichiometry of Aerobic Biomass Production
    8. Oxygen Demand
    9. Oxygen Supply – Aeration
    10. Biological Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus
    11. Anaerobic Sludge Digestion
    12. Methane Gas Production
    13. Sludge Age in Anaerobic Digestion
    14. Two-Stage Digestion Systems
    15. Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Process (UASB)
    16. Biofilters
    17. Lagoons and Ponds
    18. Composting
    19. Landfills
    20. Conclusion
  9. The Unsteady-State Material Balance
    1. The Unsteady-State Material Balance
    2. Unsteady-State Storage Systems
    3. The Unsteady-State Material Balance – Batch Smoothing
    4. Smoothing the Flow Rate
    5. Smoothing Concentrations
    6. Smoothing Mass Loads
    7. Dynamic Response of Continuous Flow Reactors
    8. Numerical Solutions
    9. Chemical Reactions
    10. Computer-Aided Design
    11. Conclusion
  10. Water Conservation and Reuse
    1. Industrial Water Cycle
    2. Cooling Towers
    3. Process Water Reuse
    4. Water Reuse and Water Quality
    5. Mass Exchange Operations
    6. The Composite Mass Exchange Diagram
    7. Conclusion
  11. References & Optional Reading
  12. Appendix 1 – Atomic Mass of Selected Elements
  13. Appendix 2 - Conversion Factors
  14. Appendix 3 – Densities and Specific Weights
  15. Appendix 4 - Degrees of Freedom & Solving Equations
  16. Appendix 5 - A Unified Material Balance Model for Biological Processes
  • Index

Pollution Prevention and Control: Material Balances is about strategies and skills for using the law of conservation of mass to solve problems in water and air pollution control, and in solid waste management. This is the engineer’s fundamental tool for tracking the mass of all species of materials that move through separation processes and chemical and biological reactors. Many solved examples and case studies in pollution prevention are provided. This is an engineering text, but the concepts and calculations are accessible to non-engineers.

About the authors

Mac Berthouex, Emeritus Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, holds two engineering degrees from the University of Iowa and a PhD from UW-Madison. He has been awarded the Harrison Prescott Eddy medal by the Water Environment Federation, and twice was awarded the Rudolph Hering medal by the American Society of Civil Engineers. He is a member of the University of Iowa Distinguished Engineering Alumni Academy. At UW-madison he taught industrial pollution control, cost engineering, and process design. He has advised more than 100 M.S. and PhD students. Before joining the UW-Madison he was Chief Research Engineer for GKW Consult in Mannheim, Germany, where he designed the water treatment plant for Lagos, Nigeria. He has been project manager of three Asian Development Bank projects in Indonesia and Korea, and has worked in India, Samoa, New Zealand, England, Denmark, Taiwan, and Mexico. He is co-author, with Dale Rudd, of ‘The Strategy of Pollution Control’ and with Linfield Brown of ‘Statistics for Environmental Engineers’.

Linfield C. Brown is Emeritus Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University. He has B.S. and M.S. degrees from Tufts and the PhD from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He joined the faculty at Tufts in 1970, and served as Chair of Civil and Environmental Engineering from 1981-1992. He taught engineering statistics, water chemistry, environmental modeling, and process design at Tufts. Tufts honored him with the Lillian Liebner Award for excellence in teaching. He helped to develop the QUAL2E and QUAL2E-UNCAS water-quality models, has been a consultant on water-quality modeling to the U.S EPA and a variety of states, industries, and engineering companies, and has taught modeling courses in England, Hungary, Poland, and Spain. He is an expert in environmental statistics and co-author of ‘Statistics for Environmental Engineers’ and has taught many short-courses on this subject.

About the Authors

Paul Mac Berthouex

Linfield C. Brown