# Tilastotiede & Matematiikka

Tässä kategoriassa on tarjolla ilmaisia tilastotieteen ja matematiikan kirjoja. Etsitkö tiettyä tarkasti määriteltyä aihetta? Kokeile alakategoriaita kuten differentiaali- ja integraalilaskenta, algebra tai kompleksifunktio

### Lataa kaikki *“Tilastotiede & Matematiikka”* kirjat yhteen ZIP-kansioon

Käyttömukavuuttasi ajatellen, olemme tallentaneet kaikki tämän kategorian kirjat yhdeksi zip kansioksi, jonka voit ladata kerralla

### Mathematics for Computer Scientists

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 153

In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by computer scientists.

### An introduction to Business Research Methods

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 137

This edition of the textbook not only provides an in-depth introduction to the field of business research for students, it also aims to prepare readers for practical careers as research consultants.

### Essential Engineering Mathematics

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 149

Essential Engineering Mathematics is one of the great eBooks available to download.

### Quantitative Analysis

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 347

Quantitative Analysis is written by an experienced mathematics teacher, this e-book is presented in tutorial fashion as if a tutor was sitting next to you . . . talking you through the examples.

### Mathematical Models in Portfolio Analysis

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 110

### Advanced Maths for Chemists

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 144

### Discrete Dynamical Systems

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 254

### Advanced stochastic processes: Part I

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 251

In this book the following topics are treated thoroughly: Brownian motion as a Gaussian process, Brownian motion as a Markov process...

### Advanced stochastic processes: Part II

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 202

In this book the following topics are treated thoroughly: Brownian motion as a Gaussian process, Brownian motion as a Markov process...

### Stability Analysis via Matrix Functions Method

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 130

The monograph presents a generalization of the well-known Lyapunov function method and related concepts to the matrix function case within systematic stability analysis of dynamical systems.

### Stability Analysis via Matrix Functions Method

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 262

The monograph presents a generalization of the well-known Lyapunov function method and related concepts to the matrix function case within systematic stability analysis of dynamical systems.

### Partial differential equations and operators

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 164

In this book, which is basically self-contained, we concentrate on partial differential equations in mathematical physics and on operator semigroups with their generators.

### Differential Equations with YouTube Examples

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 57

This book, together with the linked YouTube videos, reviews a first course on differential equations.

### Introduction to Vectors

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 68

This book takes learning to a new level by combining written notes with online video. Each lesson is linked with a YouTube video from award-winning teacher and best-selling author Dr Chris Tisdell.

### Stability Theory of Large-Scale Dynamical Systems

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 238

This book focuses on some problems of stability theory of nonlinear large-scale systems.

### A Short Course in Predicate Logic

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 180

Based on a one semester final year course the intention of this book is to provide a considerate yet rigorous introduction to the Predicate Calculus and the fundamental issues it aims to address.

### Partial differential equations and operators

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 245

In this book, which is basically self-contained, we concentrate on partial differential equations in mathematical physics and on operator semigroups with their generators.

### Real Functions in One Variable

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 146

This series consists of six book on the elementary part of the theory of real functions in one variable.

### Blast Into Math!

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 215

A fun rigorous introduction to pure mathematics which is suitable for both students and a general audience interested in learning what pure mathematics is all about.

### Introduction to statistical data analysis with R

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 228

The book contains an introduction to descriptive and inferential statistics applying the statistical software R. The analyses are introduced and discussed using real data.

### Elementary Algebra Exercise Book I

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 121

Algebra is one of the main branches in mathematics. The book series of elementary algebra exercises includes useful problems in most topics in basic algebra.

### Essential Group Theory

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 97

Essential Group Theory is an undergraduate mathematics text book introducing the theory of groups.

### An Introduction to Matlab

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 118

Matlab is one of the most popular programs for quantitative analysis. This book introduces you to the basics of Matlab without requiring any previous experience of programming.

### Mathematical Modeling I - preliminary

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 106

Mathematical modeling is the most effective bridge connecting mathematics and many disciplines such as physics, biology, computer science, engineering, and social sciences.

### Intermediate Maths for Chemists

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 106

Chemistry Maths 2 teaches Maths from a “chemical” perspective and is the second of a three part series of texts taken during a first-year university course.

### Fluid Mechanics and the Theory of Flight

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 225

The study of fluid mechanics is fundamental to modern applied mathematics, with applications to oceans, the atmosphere, flow in pipes, aircraft, blood flow and very much more.

### An introduction to partial differential equations

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 156

Most descriptions of physical systems, as used in physics, engineering and, above all, in applied mathematics, are in terms of partial differential equations.

### Second-order ordinary differential equations

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 181

### Integration and differential equations

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 122

The material in this text (Part I) introduces and develops the standard techniques of elementary integration and, in some cases, takes the ideas a little further.

### Introductory Finite Volume Methods for PDEs

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 82

This book will be useful to scientists and engineers who want a simple introduction to the finite volume method.

### Introductory Maths for Chemists

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 123

Chemistry Maths 1 teaches Maths from a “chemical” perspective and is the first of a three part series of texts taken during a first-year university course.

### Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Ratio

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 88

This book consists of the lecture notes, problems and solutions from the Coursera course “Fibonacci numbers and the golden ratio.” Links are provided to the videos used in the course.

### Elementary Mathematics for Engineers

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 267

This book is written for engineers and students and covers a range of mathematics from school to university. The first chapter is a summary so students can quickly see where further study is needed.

### An Introduction to Group Theory

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 165

The success of Group Theory is impressive and extraordinary. Its influence is strongly felt in almost all scientific and artistic disciplines, in Music in particular, as is shown in this text.

### A Refresher Course in Mathematics

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 284

The book refreshes the main subjects from mathematics taught in school. Many worked examples support the student at the beginning of a university study in acquiring the required mathematical skills.

### Elementary Algebra Exercise Book II

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 149

The book series of elementary algebra exercises includes useful problems in most topics in basic algebra.

### Linear algebra c-3

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 136

This series consists of six books on the elementary part of Linear Algebra. It is aiming at the users in Physics and the technical sciences.

### Stochastic Processes 1

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 137

In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by engineers and university students .

### Random variables III

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 113

In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by engineers and university students .

### Random variables II

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 116

In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by engineers and university students .

### Random variables I

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 159

In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by engineers and university students .

### Introduction to Probability

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 61

In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by engineers and university students .

### Discrete Distributions

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 72

In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by engineers and university students .

### Continuous Distributions

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 167

In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by engineers and university students .

### Analytic Aids

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 109

In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by engineers and university students .

### Introductory Algebra

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 214

Introductory Algebra is a primer for students considering an entrance level college algebra course. The textbook’s goal is to teach a set of problem solving skills in fundamental areas of algebra.

### An Introduction to Abstract Algebra

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 151

The goal of this textbook is to be a source for a first undergraduate course in abstract algebra. Topics progress from the structure of mathematical proof, to groups, fields, and then rings. The unive

### Linear Algebra III

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 259

### Linear Algebra I

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 208

This consists of the elementary aspects of linear algebra which depend mainly on row operations involving elementary manipulations of matrices.

### Elementary Linear Algebra

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 550

This is an introduction to linear algebra. The main part of the book features row operations and everything is done in terms of the row reduced echelon form and specific algorithms.

### Linear algebra c-4

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 74

This series consists of six books on the elementary part of Linear Algebra. It is aiming at the users in Physics and the technical sciences.

### Linear algebra c-2

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 126

This series consists of six books on the elementary part of Linear Algebra. It is aiming at the users in Physics and the technical sciences.

### Introductory Finite Difference Methods for PDEs

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 144

This book presents finite difference methods for solving partial differential equations (PDEs) and also general concepts like stability, boundary conditions etc.

### Applied Statistics

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 300

This book is intended to introduce the concepts, definitions, and terminology of the subject in an elementary presentation with minimum mathematical background which does not surpass college algebra.

### Essentials of Statistics

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 103

Many students find that the obligatory Statistics course comes as a shock. The set textbook is difficult, the curriculum is vast, and secondary-school maths feels infinitely far away.

### Essentials of Statistics: Exercises

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 58

After reading the theory book about Statistics it is time to test your knowledge to make sure that you are well prepared for your exam.

### Statistics for Business and Economics

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 150

In today’s economic environment it is practically impossible to avoid dealing with data gathering and analysis.

### Statistics for Health, Life and Social Sciences

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 292

There are many books concerned with statistical theory. This is not one of them.

### SPSS: Stats Practically Short and Simple

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 87

This textbook is for people who want to know how to use SPSS for analysing data, who want practical help in as short a time as possible.

### Surveymetodiikka

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF Finnish Sivua 230

Teos käy läpi kyselyjen (postitse, kasvokkain, puhelimella, netitse) menetelmät kattavasti.

### A Handbook of Statistics

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 80

A Handbook for Statistics provides readers with an overview of common statistical methods used in a wide variety of disciplines.

### Linear algebra c-1

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 113

### Exercises in Statistical Inference

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 198

Statistical inference is a process of drawing general conclusions from data in a specific sample.

### Study notes for Statistical Physics

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 116

This is an academic textbook for a one-semester course in statistical physics at honours BSc level.

### Applied Business Analysis

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 223

This textbook is a basic introduction to business analysis and the techniques behind deriving information from data.

### Understanding Statistics

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 146

This eBook explains statistical concepts. If you know nothing you get a basic knowledge, if you know some statistical methods you get a better understanding of the ideas behind them.

### Introductory Nonparametrics

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 87

Introductory Nonparametrics gently introduces the reader to nonparametrics by describing some simple tests, some tests of the most frequently encountered experimental designs, and permutation testing.

### Demographic Statistics

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 504

The book is an introduction to advanced demographic techniques and has been designed for researchers and students of demography and statistics as well as social scientists and health workers.

### Topological and Metric Spaces, Banach Spaces...

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 96

In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by engineers and university students .

### Hilbert Spaces and Operators on Hilbert Spaces

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 109

In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by engineers and university students .

### Integral Operators

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 66

In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by engineers and university students .

### Calculus of Residua

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 140

In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by engineers and university students .

### Real Functions in Several Variables: Volume III

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 188

The topic of this series of books on "Real Functions in Several Variables" is very important in the description in e.g. Mechanics of the real 3-dimensional world that we live in.

### Real Functions in Several Variables: Volume II

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 142

The topic of this series of books on "Real Functions in Several Variables" is very important in the description in e.g. Mechanics of the real 3-dimensional world that we live in.

### Real Functions in Several Variables: Volume I

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 132

The topic of this series of books on "Real Functions in Several Variables" is very important in the description in e.g. Mechanics of the real 3-dimensional world that we live in.

### Exercises for A youtube Calculus Workbook Part II

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 241

This book is the exercise companion to A youtube Calculus Workbook (part II). Its structures in modules mirrors that of the workbook.

### A youtube Calculus Workbook (Part II)

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 268

This book is a guide through a playlist of Calculus instructional videos.

### A youtube Calculus Workbook (Part I)

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 299

This is a guide through a playlist of Calculus instructional videos. The format, level of details, and progression of topics are consistent with a semester long college level first Calculus course.

### Elementary Algebra and Calculus

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 261

The book is based on lecture notes Larissa created while teaching large classes of STEM students at a University of widening access and embodies a systematic and efficient teaching method.

### Calculus II YouTube Workbook

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 37

The workbook is designed as a supplement for a Calculus II course taught at most American universities.

### Matrix Methods and Differential Equations

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 168

This book is aimed at students who encounter mathematical models in other disciplines.

### Linear Algebra II

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 208

This contains the basic abstract theory of Linear algebra.

### Engineering Mathematics: YouTube Workbook

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 77

The ebook "Engineering Mathematics: YouTube Workbook” takes learning to a new level by combining free written lessons with free online video tutorials.

### Methods for finding Zeros in Polynomials

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 122

In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by engineers and university students .

### My Horror Chamber

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 272

Some mathematicians including the author of this book believe that counterexamples will guide the reader towards a better understanding of the underlying theory.

### Spectral Theory

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 80

In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by engineers and university students .

### Real Functions in One Variable - Simple 2...

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 116

This series consists of six book on the elementary part of the theory of real functions in one variable.

### Real Functions in Several Variables: Volume V

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 270

### Real Functions in One Variable - Complex...

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 97

This series consists of six book on the elementary part of the theory of real functions in one variable.

### Real Functions in One Variable - Integrals...

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 154

### Real Functions in One Variable - Elementary...

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 89

### Real Functions in One Variable - Simple 1...

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 118

### Examples of Differential Equations of Second...

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 105

Here follows a book with the continuation of a collection of examples from Ventus: Calculus 4c-1, Systems of differential systems.

### Examples of Systems of Differential Equations...

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 94

In this book we present a collection of examples of general systems of linear differential equations and some applications in Physics and the Technical Sciences.

### Examples of Eigenvalue Problems

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 86

In this book we present a collection of examples of eigenvalue problems.

### Examples of Fourier series

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 119

In this book we present a collection of examples of applications of the theory of Fourier series.

### Fourier Series and Systems of Differential...

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 125

A book with "Guidelines for Solutions of Problems".

### Examples of Applications of The Power Series...

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 93

A book with a collection of examples of how to solve linear differential equations with polynomial coefficients by the method of power series.

### Examples of Power Series

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 81

In this book you find a collection of general examples of power series.

### Examples of General Elementary Series

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 95

A book with a collection of examples of general, elementary series.

### Examples of Sequences

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 77

Book Calculus 3c-1 - Examples of Sequences

### Sequences and Power Series

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 104

A book with 'Guidelines for Solutions of Problems'. The book is in English.

### Real Functions in Several Variables: Volume IV

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 96

### Real Functions in Several Variables: Volume VI

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 166

### Real Functions in One Variable - Taylor's...

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 154

### Complex Functions Examples c-4

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 134

This is the fourth textbook you can download containing examples from the Theory of Complex Functions.

### Global Analysis

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 78

In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by engineers and university students .

### Applied Mathematics by Example: Theory

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 134

Mathematics is an exceptionally useful subject, having numerous applications in business, computing, engineering and medicine to name but a few.

### Applied Mathematics by Example: Exercises

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 121

Mathematics is an exceptionally useful subject, having numerous applications in business, computing, engineering and medicine to name but a few.

### An introduction to the theory of complex variables

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 174

The theory of complex variables is significant in pure mathematics, and the basis for important applications in applied mathematics.

### Complex Functions Theory c-12

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 155

In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by engineers and university students .

### Complex Functions Theory c-11

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 131

In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by engineers and university students .

### The Laplace Transformation I – General Theory

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 107

The Laplace Transformation I – General Theory is one of the great eBooks available to download from our website.

### Stability, Riemann Surfaces, Conformal Mappings

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 115

Stability, Riemann Surfaces, Conformal Mappings is one of the great eBooks available to download from our website.

### Elementary Analytic Functions

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 145

In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by engineers and university students .

### Complex Functions Examples c-9

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 121

This is the ninth textbook you can download containing examples from the Theory of Complex Functions.

### Complex Functions Examples c-8

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 96

This is the eighth textbook you can download containing examples from the Theory of Complex Functions.

### Complex Functions Examples c-7

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 158

This is the seventh textbook you can download containing examples from the Theory of Complex Functions.

### Complex Functions Examples c-6

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 92

This is the sixth textbook you can download containing examples from the Theory of Complex Functions.

### Complex Functions Examples c-5

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 103

This is the fifth textbook you can download containing examples from the Theory of Complex Functions.

### Complex Functions Examples c-3

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 111

This is the third textbook containing examples from the Theory of Complex Functions.

### Real Functions in Several Variables: Volume VII

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 148

### Complex Functions Examples c-2

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 126

This is the second textbook you can download, containing examples from the Theory of Complex Functions.

### Complex Functions c-1

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 84

In this textbook you find examples from the Theory of Complex Functions. This book requires knowledge of Calculus 1 and Calculus 2.

### Learn Calculus 2 on Your Mobile Device

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 61

Learn calculus on your mobile device! This ebook integrates text with online video to enable learning anywhere, anytime on smart phones, tablets and laptops.

### Descent and Interior-point Methods

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 146

This book contains a brief description of general descent methods and a detailed study of Newton's method and the important class of so-called self-concordant functions.

### Linear and Convex Optimization

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 166

This book presents the mathematical basis for linear and convex optimization with an emphasis on the important concept of duality. The simplex algorithm is also described in detail.

### Convexity

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 216

This book contains everything you need to know about convexity in order to get a thorough understanding of linear and convex optimization.

### Problems, Theory and Solutions in Linear Algebra

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 235

This book is the first part of a three-part series titled Problems, Theory and Solutions in Linear Algebra. This first part contains over 100 solved problems and 100 exercises.

### Introduction to Complex Numbers

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 76

This ebook makes learning "complex" numbers easy through an interactive, fun and personalized approach. Features include: live YouTube video streams and closed captions that translate to 90 languages!

### A First Course in Ordinary Differential Equations

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 232

The aim of the book is to provide the student with a thorough understanding of the methods to obtain solutions of certain classes of differential equations.

### Real Functions in Several Variables: Volume XII

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 154

### Real Functions in Several Variables: Volume XI

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 150

### Real Functions in Several Variables: Volume X

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 172

### Real Functions in Several Variables: Volume IX

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 132

### Real Functions in Several Variables: Volume VIII

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 190

### Stochastic Processes 2

**Premium**

**Ilmainen**PDF English Sivua 126

In this book you find the basic mathematics that is needed by engineers and university students .