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Pollution Prevention and Control: Part II

Material and Energy Balances

Pollution Prevention and Control: Part II
4.9 (15 reviews) Read reviews
ISBN: 978-87-403-0773-3
1 edition
Pages : 307
  • Price: 129.00 kr
  • Price: €13.99
  • Price: £13.99
  • Price: ₹250
  • Price: $13.99
  • Price: 129.00 kr
  • Price: 129.00 kr

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About the book

  1. Reviews
  2. Description
  3. Preface
  4. Content
  5. About the Author

Reviews

anonymous ★★★★☆

me agrada como lo expresado y explicado en el libro es para que lo entienda cualquier persona ;D

Description

This book explains the two fundamental tools for process analysis and design - the material balance and the energy balance. A material balance is needed for virtually every pollution prevention and control problem. A material balance and an energy balance are needed when accounting for the use and flow of energy. Twenty five case studies and 85 examples explain how these tools are used in a variety of air, water, wastewater, and solid waste management problems. Students will learn about these areas of engineering while mastering the design tools, and be introduced to some fundamental concepts for chemical and biological reactions, material separations, and economic evaluations.

Preface

Engineering design is about the creation of artificial things that have desired properties by combining elements into a coherent whole. These ‘things’ must be analyzed to make the elements correctly fit together so the desired result is accomplished.

There is little hope of an effective solution until the designer knows the amounts of material and energy moving through the system. Many of the systems we analyze exist only as alternatives in our mind, or on paper. We cannot measure that which does not yet exist and, still, we must have accurate estimates of the flow rates and compositions in order to assess and weigh the proposals that stand a chance of implementation. Skill in deducing the changes enables the necessary flow and composition data to be inferred.

The two fundamental tools for making the process analysis are the material balance and the energy balance. A material balance will be needed for virtually every pollution prevention and control problem. The material balance and the energy balance are needed when accounting for the use and flow of energy. All mass and energy entering the system must be accounted for. The inputs, of both mass and energy, must equal the outputs plus any accumulation within the system.

This book explains how to calculate the material balance and the energy balance. Twenty five case studies and 85 examples explain how these tools are used. The examples include a variety of air, wastewater, and solid waste management problems and the student will learn a good deal about these areas of engineering while mastering the design tools. They will also be introduced to some fundamental concepts for chemical and biological reactions, material separations, and economic evaluations. Instructors can expand the learning experience by taking a minute or two to explain the context of the problem.

Pollution control engineers bring logic and order and solid quantitative information to the discussion about how public and private funds will be used to solve problems so better decisions will be made. Implementing the proposed solution goes beyond engineering design into public policy and business management so the overall result will be better if the people in these related areas understand some basic tools of the engineer.

The concepts and calculations in this book are accessible to students in non-engineering disciplines. Chapters 1–4, 6, 9 and 10 will make a useful short course for non-engineers, and also a strong introductory course or a supplement to conventional introductory courses in environmental engineering.

This is the second of five books on Pollution Prevention and Control. The first, Pollution Prevention and Control: Human Health and Environmental Quality, was about the general strategy of design, natural environmental cycles, toxicity and risk assessment for the protection of human and environmental health, the fate of pollutants in the environment, and a review of U.S. and international laws and regulations.

The books to follow will deal with:

  • Using chemical and biological reactions to destroy and transform pollutants to facilitate the separation of different materials, or to make substances safe for discharge to water, air or soil.
  • Systems to separate solids from liquids, solids from gases, solids from solids, and so on in all combination. The solution of a problem is never stymied by lack of separation technology, but it may be weakened by failure to organize them into efficient processing systems, or to overlook an innovative combination of transformation and separation.
  • Minimizing costs and comparing alternate designs. Engineering projects almost always have more than one feasible solution, and often there are several that are attractive. The options must be measured and compared by using objective criteria like construction cost, lifetime cost, or mass of pollutant discharged. Also discussed are methods for evaluating non-monetary aspects of projects.

The goal of the series is to build problem-solving strategies and skills that are widely useful in water pollution control, air pollution control, and solid waste control. We want to stimulate innovation in pollution control systems design and pollution prevention.

The ultimate goal of environmental engineering, and the part of it that we call pollution control engineering, is to increase the level of health and happiness in the world. We hope this series of books will help to do that.

Shyi Tien Chen, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, and Mark Milke, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, reviewed a very early version and helped keep the project alive. Special thanks go to Dale Rudd (UW-Madison, Department of Chemical Engineering) for his support and ideas over many years. Also to our colleagues, Emeritus Professors William C. Boyle and Erhard Joeres, of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering) for reviewing and improving the book.

Paul Mac Berthouex
Emeritus Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
The University of Wisconsin-Madison

Linfield C. Brown
Emeritus Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Tufts University

May 2014

Content

  1. The Fundamentals of Design
    1. The Design Problem
    2. The Fundamental Concepts
    3. The Material Balance and the Energy Balance
    4. Block Diagrams
    5. Block Diagrams and the Material Balance
    6. Inventing the Block Diagram
    7. Process Flow Diagrams
    8. Design Drawings and Specifications
    9. Process and Instrumentation Diagrams
    10. Structure of this Book
    11. Conclusion
  2. Measures of Pollution
    1. The Problem
    2. Pollutants
    3. Units
    4. Liquids, Sludge and Solids
    5. Gases
    6. Conclusion
  3. Pollution Prevention
    1. The Design Problem
    2. Pollution Audit – The First Steps
    3. Case Study – Sweet Potato Canning
    4. Case Study – Water Reuse and Toxic Metals Management
    5. Case Study – Reducing Phenol Emissions
    6. Case Study – Reclaiming Gallium Arsenide from Semiconductor Manufacturing
    7. Conclusion
  4. Conservation of Mass
    1. The Basic Principle
    2. Accumulation of Mass
    3. Style in Material Balance Formulation
    4. Checking the Material Balance for Accuracy
    5. Application – Desalting Water by Reverse Osmosis
    6. Application – Drying Sludge with Warm Air
    7. Application – Boiler Blowdown
    8. Application – Water Conservation in Rinsing Operations
    9. Application – Effluent Limits and Waste Load Allocation
    10. Material Balance for Partitioning Between Air, Water, and Soil
    11. Application: Partitioning to Pyrene in a Small Lake
    12. Conclusion
  5. Solving Systems of Equations
    1. The Design Problem
    2. Design Degrees of Freedom
    3. Design Variable Selection
    4. Information Flow and Precedence Order
    5. Iterative Solutions of Systems with Information Recycle
    6. Systems with Physical Recycle of Material
    7. Using the Structural Array to Organize Calculations
    8. Computer-Aided Design
    9. Conclusion
  6. Material Balance with Chemical Reactions
    1. The Design Problem
    2. Material Balances with Chemical Reactions
    3. Reaction Stoichiometry
    4. Case Study – Chemical Precipitation of Metals
    5. Empirical Stoichiometry in Wastewater Treatment
    6. Case Study – Anaerobic Sludge Digestion
    7. Case Study – Aerobic Wastewater Treatment
    8. Hypothetical Case Study – Cutter Chemicals
    9. Conclusion
  7. The Unsteady-State Material Balance
    1. The Design Problem
    2. The Unsteady-State Material Balance
    3. Unsteady-State Storage Systems
    4. The Unsteady-State Material Balance – Batch Smoothing
    5. Smoothing the Flow Rate
    6. Smoothing Concentrations
    7. Smoothing Mass Loads
    8. Dynamic Response of Continuous Flow Reactors
    9. Numerical Solutions
    10. Case Study – Municipal Activated Sludge Process
    11. Conclusion
  8. Water Conservation and Reuse
    1. The Design Problem
    2. Industrial Water Cycle
    3. Cooling Towers
    4. Process Water Reuse
    5. Water Reuse and Water Quality
    6. Mass Exchange Operations
    7. The Composite Mass-Concentration Curve
    8. Conclusion
  9. Accounting for Energy
    1. The Design Problem
    2. Conservation of Energy – The First Law of Thermodynamics
    3. The Heat Trap – The Second Law of Thermodynamics
    4. Energy Units
    5. Arithmetic Equivalence of Energy Units
    6. Energy Conversion Efficiency
    7. Renewable Energy
    8. Conclusion
  10. The Energy Balance and Enthalpy
    1. The Design Problem
    2. Enthalpy
    3. Specific Heat
    4. Cooling Tower Energy Balance
    5. Boiler Efficiency and Water Use
    6. Conclusion
  11. Energy Conservative Design
    1. The Design Problem
    2. Heat Exchangers
    3. Heat Exchanger Networks (HENs)
    4. Pinch Analysis for Heat Exchanger Network Design
    5. Conclusion
  12. Combustion of Municipal Refuse and Biogas
    1. The Design Problem
    2. Combustion Stoichiometry
    3. Composition of Solid Waste
    4. Heating Value of Waste Materials
    5. Incineration of Solid Waste and Sludge
    6. Energy Recovery from Landfill Gas
    7. Energy Recovery from Anaerobic Sludge Digestion
    8. Conclusion
  13. Thermal Incineration of Waste Gas
    1. The Design Problem
    2. Safety – The Explosive Limits
    3. Thermal Incineration
    4. Catalytic Incineration of Waste Gases
    5. Case Study – Recovery of Heat from Combustion of Waste Gases
    6. Case Study – Energy Balance on a Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer
    7. Conclusion
  14. Energy Consumption by Pumping
    1. Water and Energy
    2. Pump Efficiency
    3. The Pump Curve and Efficiency Curve
    4. Power Requirements
    5. Calculating Head Losses from K Values
    6. Designing Pumping Systems to Minimize the Cost
    7. Air Blowers and Compressors
    8. Conclusion
  15. References
  16. Appendix 1 – Atomic Numbers and Atomic Masses
  17. Appendix 2 – Conversion Factors
  18. Appendix 3 – Densities and Specific Weights
  19. Appendix 4 – Heating Values
  20. Appendix 5 – Enthalpy of Water and Steam

About the Author

Mac Berthouex, Emeritus Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, holds two engineering degrees from the University of Iowa and a PhD from UW-Madison. He has been awarded the Harrison Prescott Eddy medal by the Water Environment Federation, and twice was awarded the Rudolph Hering medal by the American Society of Civil Engineers. He is a member of the University of Iowa Distinguished Engineering Alumni Academy. At UW-madison he taught industrial pollution control, cost engineering, and process design. He has advised more than 100 M.S. and PhD students. Before joining the UW-Madison he was Chief Research Engineer for GKW Consult in Mannheim, Germany, where he designed the water treatment plant for Lagos, Nigeria. He has been project manager of three Asian Development Bank projects in Indonesia and Korea, and has worked in India, Samoa, New Zealand, England, Denmark, Taiwan, and Mexico. He is co-author, with Dale Rudd, of ‘The Strategy of Pollution Control’ and with Linfield Brown of ‘Statistics for Environmental Engineers’.

Linfield C. Brown is Emeritus Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University. He has B.S. and M.S. degrees from Tufts and the PhD from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He joined the faculty at Tufts in 1970, and served as Chair of Civil and Environmental Engineering from 1981-1992. He taught engineering statistics, water chemistry, environmental modeling, and process design at Tufts. Tufts honored him with the Lillian Liebner Award for excellence in teaching. He helped to develop the QUAL2E and QUAL2E-UNCAS water-quality models, has been a consultant on water-quality modeling to the U.S EPA and a variety of states, industries, and engineering companies, and has taught modeling courses in England, Hungary, Poland, and Spain. He is an expert in environmental statistics and co-author of ‘Statistics for Environmental Engineers’ and has taught many short-courses on this subject.

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